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Women's Health

  • Exercise

    Exercise doesn't have to be vigorous to offer health benefits. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily, or on most days of the week.

  • Patellar Tendonitis (Jumper's Knee)

    Jumper's knee is also known as patellar tendonitis. It may be caused by overuse of the knee joint, such as frequent jumping on hard surfaces.

  • Preventing Sports Injuries

    Good preventive steps: Warm up before you work out, alternate days for exercising certain muscle groups, and cool down when you're done.

  • Obesity Treatment Overview

    Whatever treatment plan a person follows, losing weight slowly will be more effective and healthy over the long term.

  • Medical Treatment for Obesity

    Medical treatment can help with weight loss if your own efforts are unsuccessful—or if you have a medical condition that makes it crucial to lose weight.

  • Gastric Stapling (Restrictive) Surgery

    Gastric stapling surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that limits the amount of food a person can eat.

  • Maintaining Weight Loss

    Keeping extra weight off requires effort and commitment, just as losing weight does.

  • Preventing Obesity

    Given the chronic diseases and conditions associated with obesity and the fact that obesity is difficult to treat, prevention is extremely important.

  • Anatomy of the Breasts

    Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.

  • Bone Density Test

    A bone density test measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density.

  • Breast Health

    Detailed information on breast health, including anatomy of the breast, normal breast development, breast cancer prevention, breast self-examination, mammography, breast conditions, mastalgia (breast pain), breast lump, fibrocystic breast changes, nipple

  • Women's Health Care Guidelines

    Get regular checkups, preventive examinations, and immunizations. Learn about disease prevention and ask your physician for specific information regarding your needs.

  • Colorectal Cancer

    Most people who have colorectal cancer are older than 50. This type of cancer is also associated with a diet high in fat and calories and low in fiber.

  • Components of Food

    When trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition.

  • Contraception/Birth Control

    You have a lot of options when it comes to birth control. Some methods don't require a doctor's visit, but others, like oral contraceptives, are available only by prescription.

  • Cervicitis

    Cervicitis is an irritation of the cervix. Acute cervicitis can be caused an infection such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes. Chronic cervicitis is common in women following childbirth.

  • The Menstrual Cycle: An Overview

    A woman is generally most fertile (able to become pregnant) a few days before, during, and after ovulation.

  • Depression

    Depression involves the body, mood, and thoughts, and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, feels about himself or herself, and thinks about things.

  • Diabetes (Type 1, 2, and Gestational)

    Detailed information on type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, including causes, symptoms, complications, risk factors, and treatment

  • Diagnosing Benign (Noncancerous) Breast Conditions

    To diagnose a breast condition, your doctor will examine your breasts and may order imaging tests or a biopsy.

  • Dysmenorrhea

    Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition marked by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain. Dysmenorrhea can be either lifelong or caused by another medical condition.

  • Endometriosis

    Women with endometriosis develop tissue that looks and acts like endometrial tissue outside the uterus, usually on other reproductive organs inside the pelvis or in the abdominal cavity.

  • Estrogen's Effects on the Female Body

    In addition to regulating the menstrual cycle, estrogen affects the reproductive tract, the urinary tract, the heart and blood vessels, bones, breasts, skin, hair, mucous membranes, pelvic muscles, and the brain.

  • Frequently Asked Questions: Mammograms

    Timing your mammogram when your breasts are not tender is important. In premenopausal women, this is usually one week after a menstrual period.

  • Glossary - Women's Health

    Glossary of terms relating to women's health

  • Gynecological Concerns

    Detailed information on the most common gynecological concerns, including sexually transmitted diseases, endometriosis, pelvic pain, menstrual conditions, premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, gynec

  • Gynecological Anatomy

    Detailed anatomical description of the female pelvis, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

  • Recognizing Gynecological Symptoms

    Detailed information on recognizing a gynecological problem

  • Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    If you use or are considering using hormone therapy, discuss the possible benefits and risks with your health care provider.

  • Urinary Incontinence

    Urinary incontinence is the loss of urine control, or the inability to hold your urine until you can reach a bathroom.

  • Home Page - Women's Health

    Detailed information on healthcare for women, including information on breast health, colorectal cancer, diabetes, gynecological concerns, heart attack, hysterectomy, infertility, menopause, mental health, osteoporosis, skin cancer, and urinary conditions

  • Breast Infections and Inflammations

    The most common type of breast infection is lactational mastitis, which occurs when a woman is breastfeeding. The nipples become cracked and sore, allowing bacteria from the baby's mouth to enter the ducts and rapidly multiply in the milk.

  • Gynecologic Inflammations and Infections

    Detailed information on the most common gynecological inflammations and infections, including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease

  • Infertility

    Many different factors and problems can cause infertility, including problems in the female reproductive system, the male reproductive system, or a combination of the two.

  • Infertility Risk Factors for Men and Women

    Age, chronic diseases, and endometriosis are common factors for women. For men, they are STDs, toxic substances at work, and cigarette smoking.

  • Interstitial Cystitis

    Interstitial cystitis is a complex, chronic disorder marked by an inflamed or irritated bladder wall. It can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder and decreased bladder capacity.

  • Common Benign Lumps

    The two most common types of benign breast lumps are cysts and fibroadenomas. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. Fibroadenomas are solid, smooth, firm, benign lumps that are most commonly found in women in their late teens and early 20s.

  • Mammogram

    Detailed information on mammography, including the different types of mammography, how one is performed, and recommended guidelines

  • Manage Your Medications

    Detailed information on learning to manage your medication, especially if you are taking several, and treating different conditions

  • Menorrhagia

    Menorrhagia is the most common type of abnormal uterine bleeding. In some cases, bleeding may be so severe that it interrupts daily activities.

  • Mental Health

    Detailed information on mental health and women, including information on managing stress, depression, and domestic violence

  • Normal Breast Development and Changes

    Breast development occurs in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also occur to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.

  • Online Resources - Women's Health

    List of online resources to find additional information on women's health

  • Osteoporosis Index

    Detailed information on osteoporosis and bone density test

  • Pelvic Pain

    Pelvic pain is a common complaint among women. Its nature and intensity may fluctuate, and its cause is often obscure.

  • Plan and Prepare for Pregnancy

    Detailed information on planning and preparing for a healthy pregnancy

  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

    PMDD is a much more severe form of premenstrual syndrome. Women with a personal or family history of mood disorders or postpartum depression may be at higher risk for this disorder.

  • Nipple Problems and Discharge

    Nipple conditions are a common benign breast condition affecting many women. Some problems are related to lactation, and others are not.

  • Health Promotion and Prevention

    Detailed information on health promotion and disease prevention for women, including information on breast health, breast cancer prevention, breast self-examination, mammography, birth control, pap test, preconception care, heart disease prevention, safer

  • Safer Sex Guidelines

    The only safe sex is no sex, most health care providers say. But certain precautions and safe behaviors can minimize a person's risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.

  • Topic Index - Women's Health

    Detailed information on healthcare for women, including information on breast health, colorectal cancer, diabetes, gynecological concerns, heart attack, hysterectomy, infertility, menopause, mental health, osteoporosis, skin cancer, and urinary conditions

  • Managing Stress

    A nutritious, well-balanced diet and exercise can keep your body fit and able to resist disease, and exercise is an excellent way to elevate your mood.

  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Urinary tract infections are a serious, but common, health problem that affects millions of people each year. Women are especially prone to urinary tract infections.

  • Urinary Conditions

    Detailed information on the most common urinary conditions for women, including urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and interstitial cystitis

  • Anatomy of the Urinary System

    Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

  • Vaginitis

    Vaginitis is a common problem for women of all ages. Bacteria, yeast, viruses, and chemicals in creams or sprays can cause it.

  • Domestic Violence

    Abuse often begins with verbal behaviors such as name-calling, threats, and hitting or throwing objects. It can become worse, including pushing, slapping, and holding against the victim's will.

  • Vulvitis

    Vulvitis is an inflammation of the vulva, the soft folds of skin outside the vagina. It is a symptom of a host of diseases, infections, injuries, and allergies.

  • Watch Your Weight

    If your weight is not in the healthy range for your height and build, the best way to lose weight is to set a reasonable goal and lose it slowly and gradually.

  • Metabolic Syndrome

    Most people who have metabolic syndrome have insulin resistance. This may be a beginning of the development of type 2 diabetes.

  • Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Runner's Knee)

    Runner's knee occurs when the kneecap rubs against the thighbone as it moves. The condition can be caused by a structural defect or a certain way of walking or running.

  • Shin Splints

    Shin splints involve damage to one of two groups of muscles along the shin bone that cause pain. The location of the shin splint pain depends on which group of muscles is damaged.

  • Sports and Fractures

    Stress fractures are weak spots or small cracks in the bone caused by continuous overuse. They often occur in the foot after training for basketball, running, and other sports.

  • Common Breast Conditions

    Detailed information on the most common breast conditions, including mastalgia (breast pain), benign breast lumps, fibrocystic breast changes, nipple problems, nipple discharge, breast infections, and breast inflammation

  • Introduction to Menopause

    When a woman permanently stops having menstrual periods, she has reached the stage of life called menopause. This stage signals the end of a woman's ability to have children.

  • Amenorrhea

    Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition in which a woman's menstrual periods are absent for more than three monthly cycles. Pregnancy is one possible cause of amenorrhea.

  • Exercise and the Aging Person

    Exercise is good for people of all ages. It helps lower blood pressure, reduces the risks for falls and serious injuries, and slows the body's loss of muscle and bone mass.

  • Fibrocystic Breast Changes

    Detailed information on common fibrocystic breast changes, including what fibrocystic changes feel like

  • Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery

    Gastric bypass surgery involves bypassing a part of the small intestine that absorbs nutrients. For this reason, these surgeries are referred to as malabsorptive procedures.

  • Hysterectomy

    Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. Different portions of the uterus, as well as other organs, may be removed at the same time.

  • Mastalgia (Breast Pain)

    The most common type of breast pain is associated with the menstrual cycle and is nearly always hormonal.

  • Obesity

    Detailed information on obesity, including obesity causes, obesity health effects, obesity medical treatment, obesity surgical treatment, maintaining weight loss, and obesity prevention

  • Overview of Obesity

    Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can inflict substantial harm to a person’s health. Learn about obesity causes and obesity health effects.

  • Overview of Sports Injuries

  • Pap Test

    A Pap test is a way for your doctor to examine cells collected from the cervix for infection, inflammation, or cancer.

  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

    This syndrome results from several related factors, including insulin resistance. This can lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes and affect fertility.

  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    Untreated, PID can cause infertility and can also lead to chronic infection or even peritonitis.

  • Perimenopause

    Perimenopause is the period of time before menstruation stops. This time is marked by changes in the menstrual cycle, along with other physical and emotional symptoms.

  • Heart Attack

    A heart attack occurs when the blood supply is cut off from the heart muscle, usually because of a blood clot. Without blood and oxygen, the muscle cells are damaged and die.

  • Lumbar Strain (Weight Lifter's Back)

    A lumbar strain is an injury to the lower back, which results in damaged tendons and muscles that spasm and feel sore.

  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Women suffer more frequent and severe symptoms from STDs. Some STDs can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which can lead to both infertility and ectopic pregnancy.

  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

    Most females experience some unpleasant or uncomfortable symptoms during their menstrual cycle. The type and intensity of symptoms vary.

  • Skin Cancer

    Detailed information on skin cancer, including causes, risk factors, prevention, types, and how to perform a skin self-examination

  • Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases

    Detailed information on lifestyle changes necessary to lower your risk for heart disease

  • Sports Injuries

    Many sports injuries can be prevented with proper conditioning and training, wearing appropriate protective gear, and using proper equipment.

  • Staying Healthy After Menopause

    Good nutrition and regular exercise can help you stay healthy and youthful at this stage of life.

  • Treatment of Obesity

    Detailed information on obesity treatment, including obesity medical treatment, obesity surgical treatment, obesity gastric bypass (malabsorptive) surgery, and obesity gastric stapling (restrictive) surgery

  • Surgical Treatment for Obesity

    Detailed information on obesity surgical treatment, including gastric bypass surgery, and gastric stapling surgery

  • Breast Health: Three-Step Plan for Preventive Care

    To monitor your breast health, you should do a monthly breast self-exam, get a year clinical exam, and get mammograms as directed by your doctor.

  • How to Perform a Breast Self-Examination (BSE)

    By doing BSE regularly, you get to know how your breasts normally feel so that you are more apt to detect any change.