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Cardiovascular Diseases

  • Metabolic Syndrome

    Most people who have metabolic syndrome have insulin resistance. This may be a beginning of the development of type 2 diabetes.

  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Detailed information on abdominal aortic aneurysms, including description of abdominal aortic aneurysm, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical and procedure illustrations

  • Carotid Artery Disease

    Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries, the main blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain, become narrowed.

  • Cerebral Aneurysm

    A cerebral aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery in the brain. This weak spot raises the risk that the artery wall will burst open.

  • Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Detailed information on chronic venous insufficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations

  • Claudication

    Detailed information on claudication, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and a labeled, full-color anatomical illustration

  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis

    Detailed information on deep vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations

  • Medical Management of Vascular Conditions

    Detailed information on the medical management of vascular conditions, including description of the vascular system, risk factors for vascular conditions, causes of vascular conditions, medical management of risk factors, and full-color anatomical illustrations

  • Overview of the Vascular System

    Detailed information on vascular conditions, including a description of the vascular system, causes and effects of vascular disease, and a full-color anatomical illustration

  • Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Aortic Dissection

    Detailed information on thoracic aortic aneurysms, including description of a thoracic aortic aneurysm, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations

  • Varicose Veins

    Detailed information on varicose veins, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and full-color anatomical illustrations

  • Vascular Conditions and Diseases

    Detailed information on vascular conditions and diseases

  • Obesity

    Detailed information on obesity, including obesity causes, obesity health effects, obesity medical treatment, obesity surgical treatment, maintaining weight loss, and obesity prevention

  • Overview of Obesity

    Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can inflict substantial harm to a person’s health. Learn about obesity causes and obesity health effects.

  • Treatment of Obesity

    Detailed information on obesity treatment, including obesity medical treatment, obesity surgical treatment, obesity gastric bypass (malabsorptive) surgery, and obesity gastric stapling (restrictive) surgery

  • Obesity Treatment Overview

    Whatever treatment plan a person follows, losing weight slowly will be more effective and healthy over the long term.

  • Medical Treatment for Obesity

    Medical treatment can help with weight loss if your own efforts are unsuccessful—or if you have a medical condition that makes it crucial to lose weight.

  • Surgical Treatment for Obesity

    Detailed information on obesity surgical treatment, including gastric bypass surgery, and gastric stapling surgery

  • Gastric Stapling (Restrictive) Surgery

    Gastric stapling surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that limits the amount of food a person can eat.

  • Maintaining Weight Loss

    Keeping extra weight off requires effort and commitment, just as losing weight does.

  • Preventing Obesity

    Given the chronic diseases and conditions associated with obesity and the fact that obesity is difficult to treat, prevention is extremely important.

  • Basic Anatomy of the Heart

    Located almost in the center of the chest, the adult human heart is about the size of two fists held side-by-side.

  • Aneurysm

    Detailed information on the dangers of aneurysm, how an aneurysm develops, and aneurysm diagnosis

  • Angina Pectoris

    Angina pectoris occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough blood and oxygen for a given level of work.

  • Arrhythmias

    An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart that can cause the heart to pump less effectively.

  • Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries

    Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries: the right and the left.

  • Atherosclerosis

    Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis caused by a build-up of plaque in the inner lining of an artery.

  • Atrial Fibrillation

    Atrial fibrillation is a type of arrhythmia in which the electrical signals in the atria, or the two small chambers of the heart, are fired in a very fast and uncontrolled manner.

  • Determining Your Body Mass Index

    Your BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your body is composed of fat.

  • Cardiomyopathy

    Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

  • Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Cardiac rehabilitation programs can be conducted while a person is a hospital inpatient or on an outpatient basis.

  • Cardiac Catheterization

    Detailed information on a cardiac catheterization procedure, including how the procedure is performed, reasons for the procedure, and pre- and post-evaluation instructions

  • Components of Food

    When trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition.

  • Congenital Heart Defects

    When the heart or blood vessels near the heart do not develop normally before birth, a condition called congenital heart defect occurs.

  • Heart Failure

    Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body's other organs.

  • Coronary Heart Disease

    A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.

  • Cardiac Diagnostic Tests

    Here's a look at just a few of the tests that have been used or are being used to understand and identify cardiovascular disease.

  • Diet and Cardiovascular Disease

    The Choose My Plate plan from the federal government is a guideline to help you eat a healthy diet.

  • Heart Valve Diseases

    Heart valves can malfunction on one of two ways: They can fail to close completely, allowing blood to flow backward, or they can become damaged, limiting blood flow.

  • Cardiac Conditions and Diseases

    Detailed information on the most common cardiovascular diseases, including full-page descriptions detailing the most common types of heart disease, related symptoms, diagnostic, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, ICDs, and treatment information

  • Echocardiography (Echo)

    Detailed information on a echocardiography (echo) procedure, including how the procedure is performed, reasons for the procedure, and pre- and post-evaluation instructions

  • Anatomy and Function of the Heart's Electrical System

    The heart is a pump made of muscle tissue. Its pumping action is regulated by electrical impulses.

  • Electrocardiogram (EKG) / Stress Test / Holter Monitor

    Detailed information on an electrocardiogram (EKG) procedure, including how the procedure is performed, reasons for the procedure, and pre- and post-evaluation instructions

  • Exercise: Before Starting an Exercise Program

    It is always important to talk with your doctor before starting an exercise program, particularly if you have certain health conditions.

  • Designing an Exercise Program

    To improve your heart and lung fitness, aim for 30 to 60 minutes of aerobic exercise three to four times a week.

  • Risks of Physical Inactivity

    Lack of physical activity has clearly been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  • Frequently Asked Questions About Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs)

    Do cell phones interfere with pacemakers? Do ICDs need to be adjusted? Here are answers to these and other questions.

  • Cholesterol in the Blood

    The cholesterol in your blood comes from the foods you eat and your liver—but your liver makes all of the cholesterol your body needs.

  • Calculating Calories and Fat Grams

    Here's a formula to help you figure out how many calories and fat grams you need each day to maintain your current weight.

  • Glossary - Cardiovascular Diseases

    Glossary of terms relating to cardiovascular disease and heart healthy living

  • High Blood Pressure/Hypertension

    High blood pressure, or hypertension, increases the risk for coronary heart disease (heart attack) and stroke (brain attack).

  • Home Page - Cardiovascular Diseases

    Cardiovascular diseases include coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and rheumatic heart disease.

  • Lifestyle Changes

    Living a healthier lifestyle can help to prevent heart disease. This means eliminating all tobacco, following a heart-healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.

  • Living with a Pacemaker or Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    With advances in technology, pacemakers and ICDs generally last several years and, in most cases, allow a person to lead a normal life.

  • Heart Murmurs

    Heart murmurs may be caused by a number of factors or diseases, including defective heart valves, fever, and pregnancy.

  • Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Mitral valve prolapse is a condition in which blood leaks backward through the mitral valve in the heart. This backflow of blood may result in a heart murmur.

  • Online Resources - Cardiovascular Diseases

    List of Internet sites with information about cardiovascular diseases

  • Overview of Stroke

    Stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted. The disruption is caused when either a blood clot or piece of plaque blocks one of the vital blood vessels in the brain or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts.

  • Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs)

    Detailed information on living with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator

  • Overview of Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs)

    A pacemaker is a small device implanted under the skin that sends electrical signals to start or regulate a slow heartbeat.

  • Pericarditis

    Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the thin sac (membrane) that surrounds the heart.

  • Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Detailed information on peripheral vascular disease, including symptoms, diagnostic, and treatment information

  • Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Detailed information on heart disease prevention

  • Cardiac Procedures

    These procedures are often used in the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  • Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which the heart valves have been permanently damaged by rheumatic fever.

  • Cardiac Sarcoma

    Cardiac sarcoma is a rare type of cancerous tumor that occurs in the heart.

  • Topic Index - Cardiovascular Diseases

    Detailed information on the most common types cardiovascular diseases, including symptoms, prevention, diagnostic, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, ICDs, and treatment information

  • Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease

    Smokers not only have increased risk of lung disease, including lung cancer and emphysema, but also have increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and oral cancer.

  • Cardiovascular Disease Statistics

    Heart disease is one of the most serious health problems in the United States. Find out more facts and figures on this topic.

  • Evaluation Procedures for Stroke

    Tests that may be used to help diagnose a stroke include a CT scan or MRI, and an electroencephalogram.

  • Rehabilitation for Stroke

    Stroke rehabilitation works best when the patient, family, and rehabilitation staff works together as a team. Family members must learn about impairments and disabilities caused by the stroke and how to help the patient achieve optimal function again.

  • Treatment for Stroke

    Although there is no cure for stroke, advanced medical and surgical treatments are now available, giving many stroke victims hope for optimal recovery.

  • Statistics of Stroke

    Almost every 40 seconds in the United States, a person experiences a stroke.

  • Stroke (Brain Attack)

    Detailed information on stroke, also called brain attack, including history, statistics, symptoms, types, effects, diagnostic, treatment, and rehabilitation information

  • Signs and Symptoms of Stroke

    If you notice any of these symptoms, call 911 or your local emergency medical service immediately. Treatment for stroke is most effective when started as soon as possible.

  • Types of Stroke

    Strokes are classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are caused by blockage of an artery. Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by bleeding in the brain.

  • Ventricular Fibrillation

    Ventricular fibrillation is a dangerous, potentially life-threatening heart rhythm problem. This type of arrhythmia can cause the heart to stop beating abruptly and lead to death within minutes.

  • History of Stroke

    Hippocrates, the father of medicine, first recognized stroke over 2,400 years ago. At this time stroke was called apoplexy, which means "struck down by violence" in Greek.

  • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

    Detailed anatomical description of the heart valves, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

  • Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery

    Gastric bypass surgery involves bypassing a part of the small intestine that absorbs nutrients. For this reason, these surgeries are referred to as malabsorptive procedures.

  • Renal Vascular Disease

    Detailed information on renal vascular disease, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and a full-color anatomical illustration

  • Pulmonary Embolism

    Detailed information on pulmonary embolism, including a description of a pulmonary embolism and the circulatory system, symptoms, risk factors, causes, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and 4 labeled, full-color anatomical illustrations

  • Effects of Stroke (Brain Attack)

    When an area of the brain is damaged, which typically occurs with a stroke, an impairment may result. An impairment is the loss of normal function of part of the body. Sometimes, an impairment may result in a disability, or inability to perform an activity in a normal way.

  • Vital Signs (Body Temperature, Pulse Rate, Respiration Rate, Blood Pressure)

    Vital signs are useful in detecting or monitoring medical problems. Vital signs can be measured in a medical setting, at home, at the site of a medical emergency, or elsewhere.

  • Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

    Heart valves prevent the backward flow of blood. They act as one-way inlets of blood on one side of a ventricle and one-way outlets of blood on the other side of a ventricle.